Furthermore, 89% of the alcoholics with a DD genotype developed ACM, whereas only 13% of those with an II or ID genotype developed this condition. However, this individual susceptibility mediated by polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene does not appear to be specific to ACM insofar as several diseases, including some that are not of a cardiologic origin, have been related to this genetic finding. Studies of alcohol and stroke are complicated by the various contributing factors to stroke. Heavier drinkers are apparently at a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke, whereas moderate drinking might be neutral or even result in a reduced risk of ischemic stroke.
Askanas et al found a significant increase in the myocardial mass and of the pre-ejection periods in drinkers of over 12 oz of whisky (approximately 120 g of alcohol) compared to a control group of non-drinkers. However, no differences were found in these parameters between the sub-group of individuals who had been drinking for 5 to 14 years and the sub-group of individuals who had a drinking history of over 15 years. Kino et al alcoholic cardiomyopathy found increased ventricular thickness when consumption exceeded 75 mL/d (60 g) of ethanol, and the increase was higher among those subjects who consumed over 125 mL/d (100 g), without specifying the duration of consumption. In another study on this topic, Lazarević et al divided a cohort of 89 asymptomatic individuals whose consumption exceeded 80 g/d (8 standard units) into 3 groups according to the duration of their alcohol abuse.
Celebrating 10-years with a new heart – just like her big sister
Dysfunctional mitochondria are less efficient, can become a source of ROS, and are more likely to initiate apoptosis (Marzetti et al. 2013). The heart’s LV attempts to compensate for this damage by enlarging to achieve a higher blood output. This eventually limits the heart’s ability to pump oxygen-rich blood around the body. It is thought that 1-2% of all heavy drinkers develop alcoholic cardiomyopathy, while in addiction units research suggests around 21-32% of people needing admission to specialist units for alcohol problems are affected. This said, there is not a great deal of data and so true figures are unknown. Others have examined the potential effects of micronutrient deficiencies (such as zinc) on ethanol-induced changes in the heart.
There’s little to no nutritional value in alcohol, after all — and we know it can cause a literal headache. If you think you may have cardiomyopathy or are worried about your risk, make an appointment with your health care provider. Because of space limitations, not all of the excellent scientific work on alcohol and the cardiovascular system could be assessed in this review. Let your health care provider know if you have a family history of the condition.
Diagnosing & Treating Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy
There was an approximate halving of the hazard ratio for congestive heart failure among drinking men (8–14 drinks per week) and women (3–7 drinks per week) in the Framingham Heart Study (Walsh et al., 2002) compared to subjects who consumed less than 1 drink per week. In a prospective cohort study in elderly residents of New Haven, Connecticut, halving of the relative risk for heart failure amongst moderate drinkers was also seen (Abramson et al., 2001). Possibly this is a consequence of the protective effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease. Prognosis in individuals with low or moderate consumption up to one or two drinks per day in men and one drink in women is not different from people who do not drink at all. In CAD, diabetes, and stroke prevention the J‑type mortality curves even indicate some benefit apart from the social ”well-being“. In patients with chronic alcohol use disorders and severe heart failure prognosis is poor, since continued alcohol abuse results in refractory congestive heart failure.
- The metabolites of alcohol, acetaldehyde and acetate, can have direct toxic effects on the heart as well.
- Similarly, alcohol can have a toxic effect on your heart and cause scar tissue to form.
- According to most studies, the alcohol consumption required to establish a diagnosis of ACM is over 80 g per day during at least 5 years[9-12].
- Epidemiological studies attribute a significant role to alcohol abuse as a cardiovascular risk factor while clinical reports have established that alcoholic cardiomyopathy results in increased morbidity and mortality.
- Basic research studies have described an abundance of mechanisms that could underscore the functional and structural alterations found in ACM.
A 2023 article notes that ACM carries a more positive outlook than ischemic cardiomyopathy, which refers to heart damage that typically occurs due to CAD. As a point of reference, consuming 80 grams of alcohol https://ecosoberhouse.com/ daily for at least 5 years can significantly increase the risk of ACM. 2 weeks ago I had extensive tests done on my heart and was told I would need open heart surgery to repair hole they have found.
Cardiomyopathy can lead to an irregular heartbeat, heart failure, or other complications. Keep in mind that with proper medications and lifestyle adjustments, which includes no alcohol, symptoms can be somewhat controlled. Most doctors encourage widespread education when it comes to alcohol consumption.
- Chronic alcohol consumption can cause multi-organ damage including myocardial dysfunction.
- Because of the ease and speed of the test and its noninvasive nature, it is the study of choice in the initial and follow-up evaluation of most forms of cardiomyopathy.
- When it comes to alcohol consumption, long-term is defined as five to 15 years.
- It is important to note that, unlike other studies with more discrete alcohol consumption categories, alcohol use was nonspecifically defined in INTERHEART as the consumption of at least 1 alcoholic beverage within the previous 12 months (Leong et al. 2014).